Fusion Reactor Research Progress



Documentation on construction updates and non-finalized ideas about the construction of the Mark 3 fusor.


Updates: (5/06/2008)

Reactor 3



Updates: (4/03/2008)

Reactor 3



Updates: (2/22/2008)

Reactor 3



Updates: (2/19/2008)

Reactor 3


Updates: (2/6/2008)

Reactor 3



Updates: (1/20/2008)

Reactor 3

  • Vacuum Hub Thin wall bellows connect to core
  • Control system 12v power supply added, thermocouple monitor mounted and interfaced with usb.
  • Gas handling system mass flow controller
  • Grid Cooling primary coolant loop pump mounted, primary cooling loop complete
  • Core assembly reactor base plate
  • ECRF driver power splitter replaced

The vacuum hub has boon connected to the reactor core via a thin wall bellows assembly mounted on a custom machined G10-FR4 clamp. The bellows is electrically isolated from the core and vacuum hub by the viton o-rings used as a vacuum seal. This will allow independent monitoring of current deposited on the upper and lower hemispheres.

A new 12v power supply has been added to supply power to the ECRF pre-amps and parts of the control system.

A mass flow controller has been added to the gas handling system, allowing for accurate deuterium flow monitoring and control.

The water pump for the primary cooling system has been mounted in the reactor frame. New quick connect fittings have been added to the tubing, eliminating the previously used barbed hose fittings.

A base plate has been added to the reactor supporting a teflon insulator located below the grid feed through and protecting internal components when the reactor is transported on a dolly.

The previous micro strip power splitters have been replaced with quarter wave splitters due to the high reflected power experienced by the former.


Updates: (1/9/2008)

Reactor 3

A new main page for the Mark 3 reactor has been uploaded. This page will link to the construction updates as well to any other pages containing documentation and paperwork.

The hemispheres have been welded and installed along with the cooled grid.

The majority of the AC power wiring for the reactor is complete. The utilization of quick disconnect molex connectors allow easy component testing and removal.

Gas handling solenoids installed for automatic fuel control.



Updates: (12/3/2007)

Reactor 3

Weld relief grooves have been machined into the weld rings of the rotatable conflat flanges, allowing for the hemispheres to be welded on the front surface of the flange. The reactor core machining is now complete and will be sent to Sharon Vacuum for TIG welding.

A new ECRF power splitter has been designed for the injector system. This power splitter uses a Motorola 900MHz duel power splitter board with a built in circulator. This will allow any power reflected back from the injectors to be dissipated into a 50 ohm termination rather then into the amplifier. Unfortunately when tested, this system reflected 20% of the power back into the amplifier and only transmitted 30% to each injector. This system will be replaced with a wilkinson power splitter.

The thermocouple reader has been mounted onto the reactor frame and attached to thermocouple extension cables to the bottom of the reactor where the cooling system is located.

Thermocouples have been epoxied into swagelok port connectors allowing the tip of the junction to be placed in the center of the coolant flow to and from the cooled grid. The thermocouples will be mounted in swagelok tees directly after the bulkhead fittings on the grid assembly.




Updates: (10/28/2007)

Reactor 3

The YAG laser has been successfully tested with the Second harmonic generator (SHG) to produce 532nm light from 1064nm light. This modification will enable the laser to be used with the cameras and image intensifier tubes which have greater sensitivity and contrast at 523nm.

The radiator mount for the cooling system has been redesigned allowing the radiator/fan combination to straddle the 8028 segment that allows the reactor core to mount to the frame. This allows the radiator to be positioned so that it does not interfere with the placement of the ion injectors.

The ECRF power amplifier mount has also been redesigned, allowing it to be recessed into the reactor frame and reducing the reactor width by 2.5". Originally the amplifier mounted on the outside of the frame with the square plates left over from the neutron detector head which was removed for space issues. The ends of the mounting clamps for the amplifier originally protruded 3.5" past the surface of the frame. The redesign involved mounting the square mounting plates on the inside of the frame, and redesigning the mounting clamps to grab onto the lip on the amplifier frame. The top of the amplifier now only extends 1" past the frame surface eliminating the problem of the mounting blocks running into door frames when the reactor is transported on a dolly.



Updates: (10/13/2007)

The yag laser has been mounted in a machined aluminum case and successfully tested again. The pulse forming network and charging system will be mounted an an aluminum control box. The laser may be further modified to include a KTP crystal to double the frequency from 1064nm to 532nm.

A thermocouple reader system capable of reading 4 thermocouples has been added to the system. The system will read coolant input and output temperature to the grid system, reactor core temperature, and ECRF amplifier temperature.

A shield tube has been added to the cooled grid system. The tube will help guide in the HV power connector and insulate it from surrounding metal parts.

A mounting plate has been built to mount the ECRF detector stack onto the reactor frame. The detector stack mounts onto the frame opposing the directional couplers.



Updates: (10/10/2007)

YAG laser has been tested and is operational.



Updates: (9/30/2007)

The two amplifier boards in the 900MHz amplifier have been separated from the power splitter/combiner, allowing independent control. An optics system is being constructed to measure plasma density.



Updates: (9/13/2007)

x-ray transformer complete

The x-ray transformer system to supply -50kV to the central grid is complete and has been tested. As it approaches 50kV output, it will arc internally between the top of one of the diode strings and one of the AC input connections in the center of the bucket cap. Further modifications will include the addition of insulators to prevent this.

Radiation safety paperwork for running the reactor on georgia tech campus is in progress. The committee will meet on 9/24/07 to review/approve the paperwork. For operation the reactor will be moved out of the dorm room and into the Neely nuclear research building.


Updates: (9/09/2007)

Due to a delay in the acquisition of parts, the reactor core probably will not be sent out to be welded until the end of september. Additionally weld relief groves will be machined into the faces of the conflat flange knife edges.

The deuterium handling system is also being modified. The current system now includes a secondary manifold for adding automatic control to the deuterium supply system. Automatic flow control will be provided by an argon ion laser refill assembly. The refill system has a dual solenoid assembly with an integral reservoir between the two solenoids allowing a precision amount of gas to be metered into a laser cavity. The system will be used on the reactor to regulate the flow of deuterium to the ion injectors.

Additionally several mini-convectron gauges have been purchased to measure pressure in the reactor and vacuum system.

Progress has been made on the x-ray transformer power supply for the main grid. The output connectors and AC power connectors have been attached. The system still needs to be wired and tested. For testing it will be necessary to buy a high voltage probe to measure the output.


Updates: (6/07/2007)

  • Hemisphere test fit into reactor frame but not yet welded.

The third hemisphere has been machined successfully and the vacuum ports fit snugly. The second and third hemispheres will be used in the construction of the reactor core when it is sent off to be TIG welded. The hemispheres have been assembled and test fit into the reactor in their approximate position and fit nicely. There is sufficient clearance to accommodate the ion injectors. The only thing that remains to be machined is turning down the weld lip on a rotatable weld ring for the third hemisphere. The reactor core will be sent off to be welded in mid to late August.


Updates: (5/25/2007)

Reactor 3


Updates: (3/22/2007)

Reactor 3



All machining on the hemispheres for the reactor core has been completed. Both hemispheres fit snugly into the 8" conflat flange, however the 45 degree ports on the first hemisphere made are slightly larger then the weld stubs, resulting in a loose fit. The weld stubs fit snugly into all ports (preferable for TIG welding) on the second hemisphere that was machined. A third hemisphere was been ordered and will be machined to replace the first hemisphere with the lose ports. While the first hemisphere could probably be welded with out problems, a snug fit between the two surfaces to be welded usually ensures a better quality weld. The first hemisphere will be used to create a mock up open reactor core for presentations and demonstrations.



The cooled grid has been successfully constructed, and the grid cooling system is nearing completion. The grid cooling system will consist of an IDEX micropump circulating fluorinert FC-40 through the 1/16" OD tubing that the grid is fabricated from. Nominally, the feed pressure of the coolant will be 80 psi. The coolant flowing through the grid will be first filtered with a 60 micron swagelok filter as a safety precaution to remove any particulate mater and derbies that may have been introduced into the grid cooling loop during coolant insertion or service. The filter will be attached directly to the outlet of the micropump, and the filtered coolant will then be transported to the cooled grid assembly with a 1/8" OD copper tube witch will be further enclosed within an external insulating tube to prevent condensation or arcing from the high voltage feed to the grid which will be located in close proximity to the coolant lines.

The grid cooling heat exchanger has also been completed. This heat exchanger is located between the coolant return from the grid and the intake to the micropump and will serve as a coolant reservoir in addition to chilling the coolant The heat exchanger is constructed of 2 water blocks with a pair of thermoelectric coolers (TEC) between them. The TECs transfer heat from the water block containing the fluorinert to the second water block connected to the primary cooling loop in which water is circulated through a computer radiator to remove heat. During testing under no load conditions the fluorinert water block dropped to 0C when the radiator was operated with room temperature intake air.




The design for the grid cooling system is complete, and a reasonable number of parts have been fabricated. The coolant for the grid will be FC-40, instead of FC-72 due to it's higher boiling pont. The system will now operate in single phase (not boiling the coolant in the grid), to reduce the risk of arcing in the ceramic dielectric break.

A Spellman negative high voltage supply has been acquired. It will supply -40kV at 5mA. While this current is to low to produce significant neutron output, it will be used as a portable diagnostic and testing supply for the reactor system.

An x-ray transformer has also been acquired. It will provide 100kV center taped at 30mA, this will be used as the main power supply for the grid, but will not be operational for some time. Until then the spellman supply will be used.

Construction of the electronics system is in progress. The switches on the front panel have been soldered into IDC connectors that will plug into the electronics board.

The neutron detector moderator has been removed from the reactor, it is too big to justify keeping on the frame, a smaller moderator will be acquired or constructed.



A Leybold D2,5 direct drive vacuum pump has been purchased. The leybold pump has twice the pumping rate of the welch 1400 and is considerably smaller and lighter. This pump was used to test the 1000 torr baratron, which was fount to be in perfect condition, however in need of calibration. The pump came with a Esker micro maze which might be used instead of the turbo pump while the reactor is being operated in a portable mode.

The design of the grid cooling system has been finalized. The coolant that will be used in the grid will be fluorinert FC-72, which has a boiling point of 55C. The fluorinert will be pumped through the grid at 80psi by an IDEX magnetically coupled micropump (cavity style gear pump). The fluorinert loop will be cooled by a thermoelectric cooling system which will transfer heat to the water in the primary cooling loop.

A laser system for probing plasma density and velocity distributions is also under design.



Significant progress has been made on the procedure in which the hemispheres will be machined. Originally, the hemisphere was going to have a hole bored into the top to attach it to a rotary table, and the head of the mill would have been angles to 45 degrees allowing for the use of a boring head to bore the ion injector ports, however the accuracy at which the hemisphere could be centered on the table and accurately incremented was questionable.

Currently the procedure has been reworked to use an indexing head instead of a rotary table. The indexing head can be easily and accurately angled to 45 degrees as well as accurately rotated in angular increments. Further since the threaded rod end opposing the hemisphere will be easily accessible, as opposed to under the rotary table, attaching and tightening the hemisphere will be considerably simpler. The presence of chuck jaws will allow the hemisphere to be easily aligned on axis with the head rotation.

A complete parts list has been uploaded for all components presently on the Mk3 reactor.



A Hitek 3000 power supply that was acquired on ebay has been successfully tested up to 5kv. The supply was originally designed to be run off of 3 phase power, however due to the internal design it was able to be run off of single phase. Although it is still unknown whether the supply is positive or negative output, it is assumed that it is positive output and will need to be rewired.



The servo mount has been successfully retrofitted with an aluminum bracket and does not flex during valve operation.

Progress has been made on the grid cooling system. A heat exchanger has been attached to an AC fan and mounted on the reactor frame. This will cool the circulating water within the primary coolant loop which will then cool the central grid coolant. Due to the high voltage differential between the central grid, and the rest of the cooling system, a non conductive coolant must be used. The coolants in consideration are fluorinert FC-77, dielectric oil, or a non-conductive hydrocarbon or alcohol. The grid coolant loop will circulate through the central grid, which will be made out of 1/16" stainless steel tubing, the coolant lines will contain a ceramic break to isolate them from the rest of the cooling system.

A second deuterium storage tank has been added to the gas handling system, this will allow an increased amount of deuterium to be held in reserve within the tanks for use at a higher rate then the fuel converter can supply.



The reactor is being retrofitted with a Parallax USB servo controller since it is easier to interface in Labview due to COM port emulation. The controller box has been machined and a Labview vi has been adapted to control servos from the computer. The vi successfully controls all 16 channels of the new servo controller.

The stainless steel mounting bracket that is currently in use flexes too much when trying to close the butterfly valve. This will be replaced with either aluminum bracket or a servo mount that is part of the vacuum hub mount.

The mark 3 reactor will have an actively cooled grid to allow increased input power.



Valve cluster guard mounted, FT50R mounted, heavy water electrolyzer mounted, web cam mount machined, main core construction in progress.



Turbo pump mounting brackets fabricated.



Stainless steel extractor cone fabricated.



Extractor cone prototype has been fabricated out of aluminum.



The neutron detector has been secured to the frame with mounting blocks, and a gas handling system has been designed. The gas handling system will connector to the reactor and the deuterium electrolyzer, providing a storage tank for deuterium, a valved cross purge system, computer monitored deuterium reserve levels, and an external deuterium output port.



5 minute test of RF system into 50 ohm termination to verify operation and test temperature rise of components. Amplifier war run with 1W of drive power and produced 25W output. It may be necessary to mount a fan on the heat sink for continued operation at higher power.

A NI USB-6008 data logger has been ordered, and work has started on the LabView interface.



Mounting plates for the 8" CF flanges have been milled on a CNC mill. The flanges successfully mount on the reactor frame.



A FT-50R transceiver has been modified for greater transmit capabilities for use as a variable frequency oscillator.



Progress has been made on the mark 2 test core. One hemisphere has been bored on the lathe and fits an NW40 weld stub.



A copy of Labview 8 student has been obtained. Hopefully this will allow the design of a high end graphical interface to control the reactor with. The possibility of buying a National Instruments USB-6008 data logger which would provide eight 12-bit analog input channels, 12 digital I/O lines, 2 analog outputs, and 1 counter channel is being considered. This would easily interface with Labview and provide analog control to the reactor power supply as well as a counter channel to monitor neutron output.

Tooling is being acquired in order to bore the injector ports for the reactor. I have bought a boring head to cut out the 45 degree ports on the mill.



More t-nut have been ordered from 8028 to allow mounting of the core and neutron detector head. Mounting plates for the neutron detector have been machined and attached to the frame. Silicone tubing has been mounted along the edge of the plates to ensure a tight grip against the detector head.

The detector head has been mounted on the frame and adaptor plates to mount the main core have been machined.



A power input panel has been machined and the power supply has been mounted. The control system power has been connected allowing for the vacuum valve to be operated by the computer. Although the servo controller is connected through the main USB hub in the control package, the computer often has problems connecting to the servo controller unless it is directly connected to the usb port. The Dataq logger reliably connects through the control system's hub.

The reactor vacuum levels will be monitored with a Baratron (capacitive manometer) so that the calibration will remain accurate when the system is filled with deuterium.



The mark 3 electronic control package has been assembled and mounted on the reactor frame.

A servo mount and conflat attachment has been successfully machined allowing a high torque servo to be mounted directly under the throttling valve. When interfaced with the computer via the usb port, this will allow automatic regulation of pressure based on vacuum gauge feedback.



The control panel is complete and mounted on the reactor. A usb servo controller will be added to the reactor control system and will add 8 servo outputs, 8 digital inputs and 8 digital outputs.

The complete USB system on the reactor will include a USB hub connecting an 8 channel ADC, a web cam, a servo controller, and a 512MB usb drive to a common USB 2.0 port on the front panel. The USB drive will contain all operating software and drivers for reactor hardware control.

IEC fusion reactor Mark 1 project has officially ended, never attaining detectable fusion. The main problem was the low conductance vacuum tubing and leaks in the core which prevented the reactor from obtaining the required 1-10mTorr operating vacuum. The vacuum levels present allowed for greater ionization current then the power supply could source, overloading the transformer and dropping the grid potential to 3kV, considerably lower then the 15kV required to obtain detectable fusion.

While the Mark 1 reactor did not achieve fusion, it did create a number of well built reactor support system design, including a professional vacuum system, a neutron detector, computer interface systems, power control systems, and one of the first practical heavy water electrolysis units usable on an amateur IEC fusion system.

IEC research will continue on the Mark 2 and Mark 3 reactor systems, which will have welded hemispherical core halved connected with conflat flanges to insure a hard vacuum seal. All components from the Mark 1 project will be reused on these reactors, with the exception of the neon sign transformer and the Mark 1 core.



After some milling, the vacuum hub has been mounted on the reactor frame and a control panel is in progress.



Ion injector successfully ionizes when immersed in solenoidal magnetic field generated by 12 N38 grade rare earth magnets (25mm length by 4mm diameter).



Turbo pump o-rings have been replaced and the ion injector test bed has been attached. A test has been preformed on the ion injector's filament, which operates perfectly in a vacuum. In order for proper ionization to occur, the injector assembly must be immersed in a solenoidal magnetic field that will be produced by rare earth magnets surrounding the injector.



In an effort to identify leaks and improve vacuum, the turbo pump has been dismantled and new o-rings have been ordered. All o-rings will be replaced to improve vacuum. In addition one of the UHV valves that is suspected of having a leak, has been removed, and that port has been blanked off.

Ion injector testing and design continues. An ion injector test bed with 2 view ports has been constructed.



The 8020 from for the Mark3 has been constructed.

A Dataq Di-148U (www.dataq.com) logger has been ordered. This will provide 8 analog channels with 10bits resolution over -10v to 10v range, as well as 6 digital channels sampled at a rate of 14400 samples/sec max. This will connect to a computer via a usb port and monitor reactor operation.

One of the main improvements for the mark 3 system will be the progression towards a completely self contained, easily transportable fusion system. All monitoring equipment and control software will be accessible via a single USB port on the reactor. All fuel injection and power supply equipment will be contained within the reactor module. The final design should be a turn key system where neutrons can be generated with minimal setup time and only power, vacuum and computer control connections via a USB port as well as heavy water as fuel.



Two 10" conflat flanges have been acquired for future use on a fusion reactor.

An 8020 frame to hold the Mark2 / Mark3 fusion reactor has been designed and ordered.



Mark 1 reactor retrofitted with a 1/4 npt to NW-25 adaptor for use with higher conductance metal tubing. Deuterium inlet valve has been replaced with a swagelok fitting to prevent leaks.



Reactor has been moved to the new dorm for the summer semester.

Several leaks have been identified, mainly in the connections to the copper tube that transfers deuterium into the reactor. It is also a possibility that the deuterium inlet valve on the reactor leaks.



Previous leak checking on the mark 1 reactor failed to locate and leaks, however the leak still remains and when isolated from the vacuum system, reactor pressure increases linearly at a rate of 10 mTorr per second.



The second fabrication attempt on the stainless steel vacuum chamber has failed. During machining the lathe bit caught on the stainless steel tube, bending it and throwing it out of the chuck. The vacuum chamber material is to thin to be tightly grasped by the lathe chuck with out distorting it. It may be possible to construct a jig that will allow a dremel outfitted with a re-enforced cutting wheel to be mounted onto the lathe bit holder. The stainless tubing could them be grasped loosely in the lathe chuck and rotated slowly on axis while the dremel slowly cuts through the tube. This will allow considerably lower pressure on the tube then is imparted by a cutting bit.

The first vacuum chamber that was machined was adapted to fit the mark 1 fusion core. By placing alignment jigs created out of o-rings between the chamber walls and the three endplate connection struts it was possible to align the chamber properly and get a positive seal against the o-rings. The fusion reactor was run and achieved considerably better vacuum then in previous runs and was immune to ion bombardment effects, however leaks in the vacuum system prevented vacuum higher then 50 mTorr during operation and no fusion was detected.

The cause of the turbo pump shutting off during the fusion runs was discovered. The vibration caused by the turbo pump operating was causing one of the drive phase contacts on the connector plug to break contact with the pin on the pump. The pump would try to operate on 2 of the 3 phases, causing an imbalance in the magnetic field in the 3 phase motor. The resulting emf would draw too much current through the thermal breaker and it would trip.

Further work on the mark 2 ion injectors has been done. The injectors have been modified to reduce the conducting surfaces of the power transfer feed through's by covering them with ceramic tubes. The injectors have been tested for a second time, operating slightly better with no external arcing. The filament operates perfectly without melting, however platinum deposition of the injector walls will eventually cause problems.



Design of the Mark 2 reactor has been completed. new designs have been uploaded to the site. The vacuum hub has been constructed, and a method to fabricate the hemispheres has been determined.

A blank sanded hemisphere will be captured face first an a lathe chuck and turned. A drill bit will be held in the opposing chuck and bore a 1/16" indexing hole on the hemispheres axis. The cord length from the axis to a point on the surface 45 degrees away was calculated to be L=R*SQRT(2-SQRT(2)). A digital caliper will be used to scribe a circle on the sphere surface that is equidistant and L away away from the indexing hole. Any vector originating at the center of the sphere and passing through this circle will be 45 degrees from vertical.

A cross laser beam emitted along the axis of the hemisphere will be centered on the indexing hole. The intersections of the spreading beams and the scribed circle will mark 45 degree positions on the hemisphere surface that are 90 degrees of axial rotation apart.

These positions will be drilled with a 5/16" bit and will serve as pilot holes for the ion injector ports. The hemisphere will then be reinserted in the lathe and the axial port for HV or Vacuum connection will be bored out on the lathe. A modified wood hole cutter retrofitted with a metal cutting bit will be used to cut the ion injector ports.



Leak testing continues on the vacuum manifold. There still is a unidentified leak causing vacuum problems. When a section of the manifold consisting of a Hastings dv-6m gauge tube, adaptive tee (nw25-1/8npt-nw25), nw25 to nw40 adapter, and a nw40-2.75CF adaptor are sealed off, pressure increases 50 mTorr every 15 sec. A plot of pressure vs time confirmed a linear trend, consistent with the effect of a leak.

An attempt to locate the leak by applying isopropanol to the intersections confirmed a positive seal to the o-rings. Interchanging o-rings did not affect leak rate. It is assumed that the system is leaking through the electrical feed through's on the vacuum gauge tube.

Modifications on a web cam have begun. These modifications will allow the web cam to see into the upper end of the IR spectrum by removing the ICF (IR cut filter) integrated into the lens that filters out IR. After the modification an IR filter will be added to the camera restricting its visual range to below near IR wavelengths. The ICF has been successfully removed allowing the web cam to record both visible and IR wavelengths. An IR filter should be added by next week.



New o-rings came in from McMaster, however the thickness of the o-rings prevent the bolts from reaching the support threads when tested with the prototype chamber. The prototype chamber will have to be reduced in length by 0.5" to allow proper operation in the present configuration. This will eliminate the damage to the chamber face that occurred during fabrication.

The new test chamber will expose the o-rings to ion bombardment, possibly leading to damage. These o-rings will have to be shielded.

The new chamber has a larger internal diameter due to the reduced wall thickness, allowing the fabrication of a larger outer grid. This should provide a better aspect ratio (closer to 7:1, the optimal ratio) leading to better plasma focus.

The final peace of remaining glass tubing insulating the HV support shaft on the mark 1 core has been replaced with high alumina, providing a considerably stronger and better insulating feed through.

Along with the new o-rings for the mark 1 core, new o-rings were ordered for the vacuum manifold. The previous viton 2.75 conflat o-rings from LDS were poorly manufactured and were suspected of causing leaks. All viton o-rings were replaced with silicone o-rings from McMaster. These are of considerably better manufacturing quality, and are have superior chemical properties for use in vacuum applications. These o-rings are 4x less expensive and can be used as a direct replacement. New o-rings have been installed and the manifold is in the process of being leak tested.



Slight updates to the web page include a blog, and some reorganization of the mark 1 fusor sub page.

As for modifications on the mark 1 reactor, the retrofitting of the core with a stainless steel vacuum chamber instead of the existing polycarbonate chamber has begun. Previously ion bombardment to the plastic reactor walls were causing heavy out gassing, thereby ruining the vacuum in the reactor. A stainless chamber will provide a much tighter seal and eliminate all problems with ion bombardment, unfortunately the plasma will no longer be visible.

Last week two stainless exhaust tips were acquired off e-bay for fabrication of the retrofit. An exhaust tip is usually a shiny oversized termination of a cars exhaust system, generally added to make the car look like it has a higher performance then it actually does, however they are also constructed out of very nice quality stainless. These exhaust tips are 1/32" thickness by 3.5" OD, and can be fabricated into a replacement chamber for the reactor. The tips can be cut on a lathe, into cylindrical sections matching the plastic vacuum vacuum chamber. Although some replacement o-rings will be required to seal against the stainless section, this modification should work well.

One tip has already been cut down, however some damage in the form of scratches on the chamber sides may cause problems when interfacing with the o-rings. It has been decided to seal the o-rings to the ends of the tube. With the currently acquired tips it will be possible to fabricate 4 vacuum chambers (2 of 2 types) for testing.




WWW http://www.rtftechnologies.org

By attempting to reproduce any experiments or devices listed on this domain in part or in whole, you agree to hold me harmless against any lawsuit or liability.

Copyright © 1998 - 2005 by Andrew Seltzman. All rights reserved.

Contact me at: admin@rtftechnologies.org